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Philosophy 302: Ethics
Test#2 The Ethics of Self-Interest

I. Matching (30 points): Write the appropriate letter of the phrase in the blank spaces provided in accordance with the relevant ethical theory.

_____ Aristotle’s ethics

a. each person serves self-interest by following rules

_____ Epicureanism

b. only I should seek my self-interest and all others should seek my self-interest too

_____ Stoicism

c. all persons, whether or not they should do so, seek their self-interest

_____ Psychological Egoism

d. all persons, whether or not they actually do so, should seek their own self-interest

_____ Ethical Egoism (universal)

e. only I should seek my self-interest (and nothing is said about the interest of others)

_____ Personal Ethical Egoism

f. apatheia results from being concerned only about those things in your control

_____ Individual Ethical Egoism

g. all persons should seek pleasure, although not all do so

_____ Rule Egoism

h. all persons, whether or not they should, do seek pleasure

_____ Psychological Hedonism

i. pleasure is a side-product of the activity of an individual

_____ Ethical Hedonism

j. pleasure is the avoidance of pain and is not positive in itself.

II. Short Answer (40 points): Briefly answer any five of the following six questions.

A. What do the Stoics mean by "active awareness"?


B. What does Aristotle mean by "eudaimonia" and how does it relate to "arete"?


C. State a good refutation of psychological egoism.


D. How does the Epicurean distinguish between higher and lower pleasures?


E. State one good objection to Stoicism.


F. Name at least one common confusion between self-interest and selfishness and give an example.


III. Essay (30 points): Answer one of the following questions in considerable detail on the back of page one and two.

A. The Hobbes Game was designed to refute in a practical manner the view that each person seeks self-interest. Explain by referring to each stage of the game whether the game played by our class did so. What were the major strategies used in the game?

B. Describe Aristotle’s theory in some detail. Explain whether you agree or disagree with his theory.


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