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Gallery of the Rotunda, Library of Congress, LC-D4-13499

Gallery of the Rotunda, Library of Congress


since 01.01.06

Citation Information for “Thomas Aquinas, ‘The Argument from Gradation’”

This page is not intended to be original or authoritative. The page is a summary of some main points and associated notes on the topic. Undoubtedly, there are scholarly and authoritative sources, both primary and secondary which ought be cited rather than these notes.

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Archie, Lee C, "Thomas Aquinas, ‘The Argument from Gradation,’" Philosophy of Religion (June 26, 2006) URL=<>.

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”Evil cannot have place among Beings or in the Beyond-Being; these are good. There remains, only, if Evil exist at all, that it be situate in the realm of Non-Being, that it be some mode, as it were, of the Non-Being, that it have its seat in something in touch with Non-Being or to a certain degree communicate in Non-Being. By this Non-Being, of course, we are not to understand something that simply does not exist, but only something of an utterly different order from Authentic-Being…” Plotinus, ”Eight Tractate: On the Nature and Source of Evil,” Plotinus trans. Stephen Mackenna and B. S. Page (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1952), 30.

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