3500 BC - 1500 BC
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1100 AD




Brief Hinduism 

Recent archeological research and ancient religious literature revel Indian history to be an unfolding rich panorama of philosophic ideals.
The expertly constructed cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro suggest by architecture and artifacts a culture comparable to the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.  The Indus Valley culture extends for one thousand miles along the Indus Valley.

The Vedas as sacred literature are a collection of early hymns dating from the Aryan invasion of India.

The essential meaning of ritual is identified with Self.  Process, an undivided whole and the fundamental reality, is beyond logic and language.  Deities are the symbols of the forces of life.

Rig Veda--mantras   to the gods
Atharva Veda--magical chants, spells, incantations
Yajur Veda--sacrificial formulae
Sama Veda--priest's chants

Brahmins--religious leaders
Kshatriyas--nobles, warriers
Vaisyas--artisans, farmers
Shudras--unskilled laborers

People are different and fit well into different groups.

There are two selves, the separate ego and the indivisible Atman. When one rises above I  and me and mine, the Atman is revealed as one's real Self.

Chapter 1: The creation of the world    
Chapter 2-6: Regulation of life; conduct of Brahmins

Chapters 7: Life of Kings
Chapter 8-10: Customs and laws 
Chapter 11: Penance for Misdeeds
Chapter 12: Karma

epend not on another, but lean instead on thyself. True happiness is born of self-reliance."
This most important part of the Mahabharata is the most famous of Hindu scriptures. The problem of renouncing the world is examined.
Upanishads are a clarification of the Vedas.  The are revealed scriptures of high importance.
 As a founder of an important school of Vedanta thought, he taught that Brahman is the whole.  Change is Maya.

Bhakti Yoga is the last step toward salvation.

Soul and God are distinguished.  If maya exists in Brahman, the basis of all being, then maya is real.
Buddhism was almost extinguished in northern India as the Muslim Arabs established an empire lasting until the 18th century. 
The British shipping and trading centers brought industry and European education leading to new religious movements.
Gandhi's campaigns for national independence were based on satyagraha techniques to awaken the inner voice of the oppressors to the truth and rightness of their own heart.
Indus Valley Civilization
Arrivial of Aryans in India
Development of the Vedas
Beginning of the Caste System
Epic Period and Composition of the Upanishads
The Laws of Manu
Beginning of Vedanta System



of India
British Domination 
of India

Gandhi and the Independence 
of India