||Philosophy 203: Scientific Reasoning
Quiz: Rules for Definition by Genus and Difference
Directions: Identify the kinds of definition evident in the following passages. Each passage is either stipulative, lexical, precising, theoretical, or persuasive. State the central purpose for the definition of the words in the manner defined. Criticize the definition by means of the rules for definition by genus and difference.
1. "One useful definition of "growth" is a multiplication of options--of opportunities, that is, to do conventional things in more than one way, and to add to them ways of doing new things." (Hans H. Landsverg, "Materials: Some Recent Trends and Issues," Science, Vol. 191, No.4228, 637.)
2. "Inquiry is the controlled or directed transformation of an indeterminate situation into one that is so determinate in its constituent distinctions and relations as to convert the elements of the original situation into a unified whole. (John Dewey, Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, Holt, 1938, 104).
3. "Herein, I define materials as 'stuff that things are made with.'" (Franklin P. Huddle, "The Evolving National Policy for Materials," Science, Vol. 191, No. 4228, 637.).
4. "The name organic chemistry, which was originally used to refer to the chemistry of substances that occur in living organisms (plants and animals), is now used for the chemistry of the compounds of carbon." (Linus Pauling, College Chemistry, W.H. Freeman, 1955, 124.)
5. "'Chemigation' means any process where pesticides, fertilizers or other chemicals or animal wastes are added to irrigation water applied to land or crops, or both, through an irrigation distribution system." (Groundwater Hi-Lites, Reno Co. USDA, 2.