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Subsections

Test Review Sheets


Test 1: Arguments and Language

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.
philosophy   implicit conclusion
logic   conclusion indicator
inference   premiss indicator
entailment   conditional statement
proposition   explanation
statement   deduction
sentence   induction
argument   truth
premiss   validity
conclusion   soundness
forms of language   types of sentences
functions of language   expressive use
informative use   factual significance
directive use   disagreement in belief
disagreement if attitude   emotive significance
methods of resolution   slanted language
phatic language   performative utterances


Important Skills: be able to work the following kinds of problems
  1. Diagram, using the standard method, simple and complex arguments.
  2. Identify premiss and conclusion indicators.
  3. Identify statements and nonstatements.
  4. Identify various kinds of nonarguments.


Important Distinctions: Be able to list differences and give examples.
  1. sentence and statement
  2. argument and explanation
  3. deduction and induction
  4. truth, validity, and soundness



Test 2: Fallacies and Definition

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.
equivocation   begging the question
complex question   false dichotomy
division   composition
appeal to the people   appeal to authority
appeal to ignorance   appeal to emotion
attack on the person   genetic fallacy
hasty generalization   false cause
slippery slope   fallacy
stipulative definition   lexical definition
precising definition   theoretical definition
persuasive definition   ostensive definition
operational definition   genus and difference
Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples
formal fallacy   informal fallacy
connotation   denotation
intension   extension
Important Skills: be able to work the following kinds of problems
  1. Identify types of definitions.
  2. Evaluate definitions by the rules for definition by genus and difference.
  3. Relate the kinds of definitions with the purposes of definition.
  4. Classify by a diagram a group of objects or events by intension and extension.
  5. Use definitions to resolve verbal disputes.



Test 3: Analogy and Causal Connections

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.
analogy   argumentative analogy
descriptive analogy   necessary condition
sufficient condition   contributing condition
method of agreement   method of difference
joint method   method of residues
method of concomitant variation    


Important Problems: be able to explicate the following questions.
  1. Be able to evaluate analogical arguments by analogical criteria.
  2. Be able to refute an argument by means of devising a logical analogy.
  3. Be able to diagram and evaluate causal connections in terms of Mill's Methods: agreement, difference, joint, residues, and concomitant variation.


Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples.
  1. explanatory and argumentative analogy
  2. weak analogy and strong analogy
  3. necessary and sufficient conditions
  4. method of agreement and method of difference



Test 4: Patterns of Scientific Investigation

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.
science   technology
theoretical science   engineering science
scientific explanation   nonscientific explanation
verifiable hypothesis   falsifiable hypothesis
direct testing   indirect testing
crucial experiment   ad hoc hypothesis
hypothesis   theory
descriptive law   prescriptive law


Important Problems: be able to work the following kinds of problems.
  1. What are some of the ways scientific theories are evaluated?
  2. Show how the general pattern of scientific research is employed by analyzing a summary of a scientific inquiry discussed in an article from a scientific journal and magazine.
  3. Show how the selection of facts is theory-dependent. Explain and identify the hypothetical character of classification and description.


Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples.
  1. verifiable and unverifiable
  2. observable and theoretical
  3. science and pseudoscience
  4. facts and theories



next up previous contents index
Next: Index Up: COURSE SYLLABUS Philosophy 203: Previous: Course Requirements   Contents   Index
Lee Archie 2005-01-16