Deciding When to Study
- Deciding when to study depends in part the subjects to be studied and the kind
of learning sought.
- Most people learn more slowly just before going to bed than they do earlier in
the day, but subjects reviewed just before going to bed are remembered
- Thus, try to schedule your learning early in the day and spend an hour just
before retiring to review what you have learned. Make this a habit (habits
generally take about three weeks to establish--at the three week point for many
activities, the probability that the "habit" will continue is just above
- Reviewing immediately after class (if only for 5 to 10 minutes) consolidates
learning and is paramount for classes with new conceptual content (e.g.,
mathematics, logic, and the sciences).
- For rote memorizing, spaced
practice is distinctly superior to
massed practice. Spaced practice results in markedly higher retention.
- For foreign language, biology, and other classes requiring large amounts of
memorized material, study in 15 to 20 minute sessions.
- The increase in retention for shorter periods of study for memorized lists is
dramatic compared to the retention had for longer periods of study.
researchers report two to three more information is remembered using spaced
practice in comparison to the same number of minutes using massed practice.
- For understanding, massed
practice is the superior study
- Massed practice results in markedly higher retention for subjects such as
mathematics, science, and philosophy.
- If you are attempting to gain insight into a difficult subject, massed practice
(40 minutes to 90 minutes of study) is much more effective in developing your
understanding of the content.
- If your attention persistently wanders, it is usually better to stop studying
and reschedule than to reinforce inconsistent and unproductive study periods.
Before you stop, however, it is useful to write yourself a contract as to when
and where you will replace the lost study time.