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Philosophy 103: Introduction to Logic
Test: The Structure of Arguments

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Part I. Arguments(30 points). Indicate whether the passages below are arguments or non-arguments. If the passage is an argument, tell whether it is inductive or deductive and diagram it using the numbers provided..

A. [1] Since I studied hard for this logic test, and [2] since I understand the material very well, [3] I will probably make a good grade.


B. [1] There is probably gold in Abbeville County [2] because there are many abandoned gold mines there and [3] Ransom’s geology guide lists sites in this county as places to look for gold. 


C. [1] If students were environmentally aware, they would object to the endangering of any species of animal. [2] But the well known Greenwood white squirrel is endangered [3] as it has completely disappeared from the Lander Campus [4] because the construction of the Learning Center and new Science Complex has destroyed its native habitat. [5] Yet, no Lander student objected. [6] Therefore, Lander students are not environmentally aware. 


D. [1] In 60 out of 90 attacks in the dark, catfish strike guppies along the guppy's meandering path. [2] Consequently, catfish can track the chemical trails in guppy-wakes in the dark.


E. [1] God is good [2] because by definition God cannot be evil or indifferent.


F. [1] I was late for class [2] because my car ran out of gas and [3] I could not find a gas station.






Part II. Truth, Validity, and Soundness (20 points). Write in the blanks below the word "true" or the word "false" in accordance with the truth or falsity of the statement

1. _______________ All deductive argument with true premisses are always valid.

2. _______________ All sound deductive arguments are valid.

3. _______________ All valid arguments have true premisses and a true conclusion.

4. _______________ All deductive arguments with true premisses and a false conclusion are invalid.

5. _______________ Some invalid arguments have true premisses and a true conclusion.

6. _______________ All valid deductive arguments are sound.

7. _______________ All deductive arguments are valid.

8. _______________ All deductive arguments with a false conclusion are invalid.

9. _______________ All arguments with a false statement in them are unsound.

10. _______________ All sound arguments are valid and have all true statements in them.


Part III. Premiss and Conclusion Indicators (20 points). Place a check mark in the appropriate column for the following words.





1. since
2. for
3. thus
4. therefore
5. because
6. yet
7. moreover
8. as
9. hence
10. accordingly

Part IV. Short Answer (30 points). Explain the meaning of the following terms and give an example of each.

A. statement:

B. sentence which is not a statement:

C. deductive argument:

D. inductive argument:

Optional-Extra Credit (5 pts.): Diagram the structure of the following complex argument.

(1) Bacteria responsible for the familiar infectious diseases are becoming ever more resistant to antibiotics. (2) Certain strains of enterococci bacteria no longer respond to vancomycin. (3) Vancomycin was thought to be the drug of last resort that could beat any bacterial infection. (4) In the race for supremacy, microbes are sprinting ahead.


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