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Selected Bibliography

Recommended Readings

The following papers in scientific reasoning are recommended for finding research topics for your scientific reasoning paper or project.
Abir-Am, P. "Essay Review: How Scientists View Their Heroes: Some Remarks on the Mechanism of Myth Construction." Journal of the History of Biology, 15 (1982), 281-315.
Axelrod, R. and W. D. Hamilton. "The Evolution of Cooperation." Science, 211 (1981), 1390-1396.
Barrow, J. D. Theories of Everything: The Quest of Ultimate Explanation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.
Bechtel, W. "Two Common Errors in Explaining Biological and Psychological Phenomena." Philosophy of Science, 49 (1982), 549-74.
Berger, P. L. and T. Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
Black, M. Models and Metaphors. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1962.
Bochen´ski, J. M. The Methods of Contemporary Thought. New York: Harper and Row, 1968.
Boyd, R., P. Gasper, and J. D. Trout, eds. The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1991.
Burian, R. M. "How the Choice of Experiemntal Organisms Matters: Biological Practices and Discipline Boundaries." Synthese, 92 (1992), 151-166.
Burks, A. Cause, Chance, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Callebaut, W. "Reduction Reassessed." Against Biological Determinism. Ed. S. Rose. London: Allison and Busby, 1982. 151-176.
Callebaut, W. Taking the Naturalistic Turn or How Real Philosophy of Science Is Done. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Campbell, D. R. "'Downward Causation' in Hierarchically Organized Biological Systems." Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. Eds. F. J. Ayala and T. Dobzhansky. London: Macmillan, 1974. 179-86.
Campbell, D. R. "Can We Be Scientific in Applied Social Science?" Evaluation Studies, Vol. 9. Eds. R. F. Connor, D. G. Attman, and C. Jackson . Beverly Hills: Sage, 1984. 26-48.
Caplan, A. "Pick Your Poison: Historicism, Essentialism, and Emergentism in the Definition of Species." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences, 4 (1954), 285-86.
Churchland, P. M., and P. S. Churchland. "Could a Machine Think?" Scientific American, 262 (1990), 32-37.
Churchland, P. S. "Mind-Brain Reduction: New Light from the Philosophy of Science." Neuroscience, 7 (1982), 1041-1047.
Clement, J. "Learning via Model Construction and Criticism: Protocol Evidence on Sources of Creativity in Science." Handbook of Creativity. Eds. J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, and C. F. Reynolds. New York: Plenum Press, 1989. 341-81.
Cohen, J. "Irreproducible Results and the Breeding of Pigs (or Nondegenerate Limit Random Variables in Biology)." BioScience, 26 (1976), 394-94.
Committe on the Conduct of Science, National Academy of Sciences. "On Being a Scientist." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 89 (1989), 9053-74.
Commoner, B. "In Defense of Biology." Science, 133 (1961), 1745-48.
Cziko, G. A. "Unpredicatibility and Indeterminism in Human Behavior: Arguments and Implications for Educational Research." Educational Reasearcher, 18 (1989), 17-15.
Darden, L. "Discoveries and the Emergence of New Fields in Science." Philosophy of Science Association, (1978), 1:149-160.
Darden, L. "Diagnosing and Fixing Faults in Theories." Computational Models of Scientific Discovery and Theory Formation. Eds. J. Shrager and P. Langley. San Mateo, Calif: Morgan Kaufmann, 1990. 319-346.
Dawkins, R. "The Myth of Genetic Determinism." New Scientist, 3 (7 January 1982), 27-30.
Dawkins, R. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton, 1986.
De Mey, N. The Cognitive Paradigm. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
De Mey, M. "Scientific Discovery: Cold Fusion of Ideas?" International Studies in Philosophy of Science. 6 (1992), 23-27.
Dretske, F. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, Bradford Books, 1988.
Duhem, P. The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Trans. P. P. Wiener. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953.
Economist, The. "Philosophy Comes Down from the Clouds. (26 April 1986), 101-105.
Feyerabend, P. K. "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricim." Scientific Explanation: Space and Time. Eds. H. Feigl and G. Maxwell. Minnepolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962. 28-97.
Field, H. "Theory Change and the Indeterminacy of Reference." Journal of Philosophy, 70 (1973), 462-81.
Franklin, A. The Neglect of Experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Friedman, Michael. "Explanation and Scientific Understanding." Journal of Philosophy, 71 (1974), 5-19.
Galison, P. How Experiments End. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Gardner, M. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. New York: Dover, 1957.
Gardner, M. "Mathematical Games." (The Game of Patterns) Scientific American. 249 (November 1972), 140-144.
Gerson, E. M. A Classification of Heuristics. San Francisco: Tremont Research Institute Technical Report, 1990.
Ghiselin, M. R. "Categories, Life, and Thinking." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences. 4 (1981), 269-283.
Giere, R. N. Understanding Scientific Reasoning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.
Glymour, C. Theory and Evidence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Goffman, E. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1974.
Goodman, N. Fact, Fiction, and Forecast. New York, Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
Gorman, M. E., and B. Carlson. "Can Experiments Be Used to Study Science?" Soc. Epist. 3 (1989), 89-106.
Gould, S. J. "Sociobiology: The Art of Storytelling." New Scientist, (16 November 1978), 530-533.
Grene, M. "Hierarchies in Biology." American Scientist, 75 (1987), 504-9.
Grinnell, F. The Scientific Attitude. Boulder: Westview Press, 1988.
Hanson, N. R. Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958.
Hanson, N. R. Perception and Discovery: An Introduction to Scientific Inquiry. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper, 1969.
Harman, G. "The Inference to the Best Explanation." Philosophical Review, 74 (1965), 88-95.
Hawking, S. "Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics?" Stephen Hawking's Universe. Ed. J. Boslough. New York: Avon Books, 1989. 119-39.
Hesse, M. Models and Analogies in Science. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1966.
Hofstadter, D. R. "Mathematical Chaos and Strange Attractors." Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1986.
Holland, J. H., K. J. Holyoak, R. E. Nisbett, and P. R. Thagard. Induction: Processes of Influence, Learning and Discovery. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.
Horan, B. "Functional Explanations in Sociobiology." Biol. Phil. 4 (1989), 131-58.
Howson, C. and P. Urbach. Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1989.
Huff, D. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: W. W. Norton, 1954.
Hull, D. L "The Effects of Essentialism on Taxonomy: Two Thousand Years of Stasis." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15 (1965) 314-326 and 16 (1966), 1-18.
Hull, D. L. "The Operational Imperative: Sense and Nonsense in Operationism." Systematic Zoology, 17 (1968), 438-57.
Hull, D. L. Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Kauffman, S. The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Keene, G. B. "The Irrelevance of Classical Logic." Philosophical Quarterly, 41 (1990), 76-82.
Kitcher, P. "Explanatory Unification." Philosophy of Science, 48 (1981), 507-31.
Kneale, W., and M. Kneale. The Development of Logic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Knorr, K. D. "Tinkering Toward Success: Prelude to a Theory of Scientific Practice." Theory and Society, 8 (1979), 347-46.
Knorr, K. D. "The Fabrication of Facts: Toward a Microsociology of Scientific Knowledge." The Sociology of Knowledge. Eds. N. Stehr and V. Meja. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984.
Koyr´e, A. "Influence of Philosophical Trends on the Formulation of Scientific Theories." The Validation of Scientific Theories. Ed. P. Frank. Boston: Beacon, 1954. 177-87.
Kuhn, T. S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Kulkarni, D., and H. A. Simon. "The Processes of Scientific Discovery: The Strategy of Experimentation." Cognitive Science, 12 (1988), 139-76.
Langley, P., H. A. Simon, G. L. Bradshaw, and J. M. Zytkow, eds. Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.
Latour, B., and S. Woolgar. Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Laudan, L. "The Pseudo-Science of Science?" Philosophy of Social Science, 11 (1981), 173-98.
Laudan, L. "Are All Theories Equally Good? A Dialogue." Relativism and Realism in Science. Ed. R. Nola. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988. 117-39.
Lenat, D. "The Ubiquity of Discovery." Artificial Intelligence, 9 (1978), 257-85.
Leontief, W. "Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts." American Economic Review, 61 (1971), 1-7.
Levi, I. Gambling With Truth. New York: Knopf, 1967.
Lewontin, R. C. "Models, Mathematics, and Metaphors." Synthese, 15 (1963), 222-44.
Lewontin, R. C. "Adaptation." Scientific American, 239, (September, 1978), 212-30.
Lighthill, J. "The Recently Recognized Failure of Predictability in Newtonian Dynamics." Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, A 407 (1986), 35-50.
Lloyd, E. A. "The Nature of Darwin's Support for the Theory of Natural Selection." Philosophy of Science, 50 (1983), 112-29.
Longino, H. E. "Feminist Critiques of Rationality: Critiques of Science or Philosophy of Science?" Women's Studies International Forum, 12 (1989), 261-269.
Luce, R. D. and H. Raiffa. Games and Decisions. New York: Wiley, 1957.
Lynch, M. and S. Woolgar, eds. Representation in Scientific Practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.
Maull, N. "Unifying Science Without Reduction." Studies in the History of Philosophy of Science, 8 (1977), 143-62.
Mayr, E. "Cause and Effect in Biology." Science, 134 (1961), 1501-6.
Mayr. E. Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Millikan, R. Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.
Mynatt, C. R., M. E. Doherty, and R. D. Tweney. "Confirmation Bias in a Simulated Research Environment. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29 (1977), 85-89.
Nagel, E. The Structure of Science. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1961.
Nagel, E. "Teleology Revisited." Journal of Philosophy, 74 (1977), 261-301.
Nersessian, N. J. "Reasoning from Imagery and Analogy in Scientific Concept Formation." Philosophy of Science Association, (1988), 1: 41-47.
Nickles, T. Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.
Nickles, T. "What is a Problem that We May Solve It?" Synthese, 47 (1981), 85-118.
Nickles. T. "Discovery Logics." Philosophica, 45 (1990), 7-32.
Oldroyd, D. "David Hull's Evolutionary Model of Science." Biol. Phil., 4 (1990), 473-87.
Oppenheim, P. and H. Putnam. "Unity of Science as a Working Hypothesis." Concepts, Theories, and the Mind-Body Problem. Eds. H. Feigl, M. Scriven, and G. Maxwell. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958. II: 3-36.
Pervich, Jr., A. N. "Genius, Scientific Method, and the Stability of Syntheitc A Priori Principles." Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Eds. A. Donagan, A. N. Perovich, Jr., and M. V. Wedin. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1986. 327-39.
Pickering. A. "Against Putting the Phenomena First. Studies in the History of Philosophy of Science, 15 (1984), 85-117.
Pickering, A. "Making Plans: On the goals of Scientific Practice." Experimental Inquiries: Historical, Philosophical and Social Studies of Experimentation in Science. Ed. H. Le Grand. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990. 215-39.
Plotkin, H. C. "Learning the the Context of Hierarchy of Knowledge Gaining Processes." Learning, Development, and Culture: Essays in Evolutionary Epistemology. Ed. H. C. Plotkin. New York: Wiley, 1982. 117-34.
Popper, K. R. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books, 1959.
Putnam, H. "What Theories Are Not." Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Ed. E. Nagel, P. Suppes, and A. Tarski. Stanford: Stanford Univeristy Prss, 1962. 240-51.
Rescher, N. Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory of Knowledge. Oxford: Blackwell, 1977.
Quine, W. V. "Two Dogmas of Empiricism." Philosophical Review, 60 (1951), 20-43.
Root-Bernstein, R. S. Discovering. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Rosenberg, A. "Fitness." Journal of Philosophy, 80 (1983), 457-73.
Ruse, M. The Philosophy of Biology. London: Hutchinson, 1973.
Ruse, M. Molecules to Men. The Concept of Progress in Biology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Schaffner, K. F. "Approaches to Reduction." Philosophy of Science, 34 (1967), 137-47.
Scheffler, I. Science and Subjectivity. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.
Schmitt, F. F. Truth: A Primer. Boulder: Westview, 1995.
Shapere, D. "The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy." Philosophy of Science, 49 (1982). 485-525.
Shapere, D. "On Deciding What to Believe and How to Talk about Nature." Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric. Eds. M. Pera and W. Shea. Canton, Mass.: Science History Publications, 1991. 89-103.
Simon, H. A. "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." Artificial Intelligence. 4 (1973), 181-201.
Simon, H. A. Models of Discovery and Other Topics in the Methods of Science. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.
Simon, H. A. "Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 6 (1992), 1-14.
Smokler, H. "Are Theories of Rationality Empirically Testable?" Synthese. 82 (1990), 297-306.
Sober, E. Simplicity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Sober, E. "Psychologism." Journal of Theory of Social Behavior, 8:165-91.
Sober, E. Philosophy of Biology. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.
Star, L, and E. Gerson. "The Management and Dynamics of Anomalies in Scientific Work." Sociological Quarterly, 28 (1986), 147-169.
Suppe, F., ed. The Sturcture of Scientific Theories. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Swanson, D. "Medical Literature as a Potential Source of New Knowledge." Bulletin of Medical Library Association, 78 (1990), 29-37.
Tauber, A. I. and S. Sarkar. "The Human Genome Project: Has Blind Reductionism Gone Too Far?" Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 35 (1992), 220-35.
Thagard, P. Computational Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.
Thagard, P. "Explanatory Coherence." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences, 12 (1989), 435-67.
Tolman, E. C., and E. Brunswik. "The Organism and the Causal Texture of the Environment." Psychological Review, 42 (1935), 43-77.
Toulmin, S. E. "From Logical Analysis to Conceptual History." The Legacy of Logical Positivism. Eds. P. Achinstein and S. Barker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969. 25-53.
Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. "Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases." Science, 185 (1974), 1124-31.
Tweney, R. D. "Faraday's Discovery of Induction: A Cognitive Approach." Faraday Rediscovered: Essays on the Life and Work of Michael Faraday, 1791-1867. Eds. D. Gooding and F. James. New York: Stockton, 1985. 189-209.
Tweney, R. D. "Serial and Parallel Processing in Scientific Discovery." Cognitive Models of Science, Vol. 15. Ed. R. N. Giere. Minneapolis: Univerity of Minnesota Press, 1992.
Tweney, R. D. "Rationality and the Psychology of Inference." Synthese, 57 (1983), 139-61.
Tweney, R. D., M. E. Doherty, and C. R. Mynatt, eds. On Scientific Thinking. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.
Van Frassen, B. C. Laws and Symmetry. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.
von Bertalanffy, L. General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. New York: George Braziller,1968.
Vrba, E. and S. J. Gould. "The Hierarchical Expansion of Sorting and Selection: Sorting and Selection Cannot Be Equated." Paleobiology, 12 (1986), 217-28.
Walton, Douglas N. "Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?" American Philosophical Quarterly, 22 (1985), 263-74.
Wason, P. C. "Reasoning." New Horizons in Psychology. Ed. B. M. Foss. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966. 135-51.
Wason, P. C. and P. N. Johnson-Laird. The Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.
Weber, R. Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986.
Wimsatt, W. C. "Teleology and the Logical Structure of Function Statements. Studies in the History of the Philosophy of Science, 3 (1972), 1-80.
Wimsatt, W. C. "False Models as Means to Truer Theories." Neutral Models in Biology. Eds. M. Nitecki and A. Hoffmann. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. 23-55.
Winckelgren, I. "How the Mind 'Sees' Borders When There Are None." Science, 252 (1992), 1520-21.
Woodger, J. H. Axiomatic Method in Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937.
Wright, L. Teleological Explanations: An Etiological Analysis of Goals and Functions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Recommended References

The following works are recommended for finding philosophical research references for your scientific reasoning paper or project. Most are available in the stacks of the Larry A. Jackson Library.
Angeles, Peter A. A Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Harper and Row, 1981.
Blackburn, Simon, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Oxford, 1994.
Edwards, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
Flew, Antony, ed. A Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.
Lacy, A. R. A Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976.
Magill, Frank N., ed. Masterpieces of World Philosophy in Summary Form. London: George Allen, 1963.
O'Connor, D., ed. A Critical History of Western Philosophy. Glencoe: Free Press, 1964.
Urmson, J. O., ed. Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers. New York: Hawthorne, 1960.
Good online sources for this course are updated on a regular basis on the Philosophy Web Site: General philosophical links can be found at

Periodicals in Philosophy

If you find time during the semester to browse in the Larry A. Jackson Library, there are a few journals which show some of the technical applications of philosophy. These include the following publications.

The American Philosophical Quarterly
The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
International Philosophical Quarterly

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Next: Class Assignments Up: COURSE SYLLABUS Philosophy 203: Previous: Philosophy Assessment   Contents   Index
Lee Archie 2003-01-18