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Course Requirements


Judgment about the progress of your work is based on tests. Your course grade is determined by averaging the points you achieve from the following scores:
Test 1
Lanugage and Argument
Test 2
Definition and Fallacies
Test 3
Analogy and Causal Connection
Test 4
Patterns of Scientific Investigation
Your final course grade is assigned according to your final average.


Judgment about the progress of your work is based on the four test scores. The course is essentially performance based and consists of a progressive series of concepts to be learned and mastered. For this reason, few students can do well in this course by ``cramming'' before exams. Normally, the course is not difficult if you attend class, keep up with the reading and notes daily, and do not attempt to learn a large amount of information in a short amount of time. A six-part distillation of notes on ``How to Study'' for this course is available on the Web at and is recommended reading.


Tests are usually a combination of objective, short answer and problems. The subject-matter is primarily based on the reading, lecture notes, and homework assignments. In general, if you understand how to do the homework problems, you will do well on tests. On essay-type questions, be sure to answer with complete sentences; answers provided as lists of phrases or the names of concepts, alone, do not reflect an understanding of the subject and usually will be given little, if any, credit. Example tests, quizzes, and lecture notes, are online at
Test Review Worksheets are provided in the Appendix to this syllabus and form an excellent basis for studying for tests.

Grade Evaluation

Your final course grade is assigned according to your final average as described above in the subsection ``Grades.'' The number of hours advised to study given below is usually an accurate guide to how well you will do in this class. If you study only for tests, your doing well in the course is unlikely. Many students assume they can do well in philosophy without doing homework and without studying outside of class because they have been able to do so in other high school or college classes. Since they have become habituated to passing courses without much study, they are often dismayed to discover our philosophy course is substantially different from their expectations.
(90 points or above) reflects approximately two hours study per class hour; a great deal of time, thought, and effort; and mastery of the subject.
(80 or above but below 90 points) reflects approximately one hour study per class hour; above average time, thought and effort; and superior achievement.
(70 or above but below 80 points) reflects approximately one-half hour study per class hour, average time, thought, and effort; and average achievement.
(60 or above but below 70 points) reflects cramming for examinations; minimum time, thought, and effort; below college level work; a less than adequate grasp of the course content; and less than satisfactory achievement.
reflects attending fewer than 75% of class meetings.
can only be given in cases of sudden illness or emergency.

Your Job

Our course is not difficult if you keep up with the assigned work. At the very beginning of the course, you need to ask yourself if you can spend at least three hours a week studying just for Scientific Reasoning. If work or family responsibilities interfer with this minimmum number of study hours, you should not attempt this course. When you seek help from me during office hours, the first items I will check are your class notes, book notes, and homework problems--so that I can know where to begin. When a student claims he or she did not understand the subject well enough to ask any questions, take any notes, or attempt any homework, the student should withdraw from the course. A good place to see how to study in our course is the ``Notes on How to Study'' on the Web at

My Job

We will find that inductive reasoning is quite essential in all fields of endeavor. If I do my job correctly, our scientific reasoning course will be one of the most valuable in your university career.

Class Policies

The following policies are explicitly stated here because these policies help protect fairness for the class as a whole. These policies are generally assumed in most classes at Lander University.
Make-Up Policy:
If you miss one or more regularly scheduled tests during the semester with an approved written excuse, a make-up test will be provided during the final exam period at the end of the semester. An excused absence is granted for emergency situations only, and a written excuse must be provided.
Students are expected to do their own work in this course. To use another writer's or speaker's ideas without giving credit by means of standard documentation is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty on tests will be handled in accordance with the Academic Honor Code as presented in the Lander University Student Handbook.
Class Attendance:
Students are expected to attend all classes; there are no ``free cuts.'' In the case of unavoidable absences, you are responsible for making up work done in class. In accordance with University policy, if you attend less than 75% of the scheduled class meetings, you will not receive credit for the course. Anyone missing class is responsible for obtaining the class notes and assignments from a classmate or from the Web resources. Additionally some book notes, quizzes, sample tests, and a few class lectures are online at
Learning Disabilities:
If you have a physical or learning disability and you require special accommodations, be sure to contact Mr. Lafayette Harrison (Learning Center 345, telephone (864) 388-8814) and provide him with appropriate documentation. When Mr. Harrison is made aware of your disability, he will inform your instructors every semester unless you ask him in writing not to do so. For additional information, see the ``Disabled Student Information'' on the Lander University Website at
Closing of the University:
If hazardous weather conditions or any other state of emergency necessitate University closing, the information will be available from the Lander automated information system (telephone (864) 388 8400) or local radio and television stations.

next up previous contents index
Next: Test Review Sheets Up: COURSE SYLLABUS Philosophy 203: Previous: Course Description   Contents   Index
Lee Archie 2005-01-16