Subsections

Test Review Sheets

Test 1: The Problems of Ethics

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

morals (descriptive ethics)   ethics (prescriptive)
metaethics   analytical ethics
normative ethics   moral
nonmoral   immoral
amoral   cultural relativism
ethical relativism   ethical absolutism
ethical nihilism   ethical skepticism
ethical subjectivism   necessary condition
sufficient condition   contributing condition


Important Distinctions: Be able to list differences and give examples.

  1. morals and ethics
  2. psychological and ethical relativism
  3. ethical relativism and ethical absolutism
  4. necessary and sufficient conditions
  5. ethics and social practice

Important Essays: Be able to explain in depth.

  1. What are the central questions of ethics?
  2. What is an ethical or moral issue?
  3. What are the advantages and disadvantages to the various criteria of truth in ethical matters: authority, consensus gentium, legality, conscience, revelation, intuition, reason?
  4. Why be moral? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the purported justification: ``it pays,'' common interest, and ``it's right.''
  5. What are the main objections to ethical relativism?



Test 2: Determinism, Religion, Duty

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

scientific (hard) determinism   soft determinism
predeterminism   fatalism
predestination   indeterminism
a priori chance   a posteriori chance
Socratic Paradox   hedonism
Epicureanism   Cynicism
apatheia   egotism
Stoicism   psychological egoism
ethical egoism   will to power
slave morality   master morality
instrumental good   intrinsic good
active awareness   social contract
principle of æsceticism   self-interest


Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples.

  1. free will and determinism
  2. pleasure and happiness
  3. Epicureanism and hedonism
  4. Egoism and hedonism
  5. psychological and ethical egoism
  6. lower pleasure and higher pleasure
  7. principles of sympathy and antipathy
  8. master and slave morality

Important Essays: Be able to explain in depth.

  1. What is the Socratic Paradox? What is paradoxical about it? How are the distinctions between instrumental and intrinsic goods and means and ends related to the paradox?
  2. What are the main points of and objections to Epicureanism? What is the role of pleasure in Epicureanism?
  3. What are the main points of and objections to Stoicism? What rôle does active awareness play in Stoic philosophy?
  4. Explain some of the common confusions with examples concerning the use of the terms ``self-interest,'' ``selfishness,'' and ``other-regarding motives.''
  5. Explain the major objections to psychological egoism.

Test 3: Self-Interest and Society

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

utilitarianism   ends and means
eudaimonia   árete
doctrine of the mean   Aristotle on pleasure
reason   faith
duty ethics   religious ethics
categorical imperative   practical imperative
teleological suspension   æsthetic stage
ethical stage   religious stage

Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples.

  1. free will and determinism
  2. duty ethics and religious ethics
  3. actions in accordance with duty and actions for the sake of duty
  4. maxim and universal law
  5. Kierkegaard's stages on life's way: æsthetic, ethical, and religious

Important Essays: Be able to explain in depth.

  1. Explain by citing examples the relation between the practice of morals and the ethics of the Sioux as described by Ohiyesa.
  2. What does Kant mean by universalizing my maxim? Give an example of a maxim which cannot be universalized, and explain why it cannot be universalized.
  3. What are the main points of and criticisms of Aristotle's ethics? What is the rôle of pleasure in Aristotle's ethics?
  4. Explain Bentham's Hedonistic calculus.

Lee Archie 2010-08-31