Clarify as carefully as possible Ortega's distinction between the innate or biological nature of human beings and the invented or extra-natural life of human beings. Does this distinction rest on the difference of man's self-awareness?
Explain what Ortega means when he states human beings are given "the abstract possibility, but not the reality, of existence"? How does Ortega define "existence"?
Why does Ortega think that the transcendent or extra-natural aspect of a human being is not self-aware but is authentic, whereas the natural or biological aspect is self-aware but is not authentic? What do you think Ortega means by "authenticity"in this regard?
Why does Ortega reject the term "spirit" to denote the transcendent or extra-natural aspect of human existence?
How does Ortega distinguish between human beings and all other things in the universe? What does Ortega say it means for a human being to exist? Explain this meaning in terms of the "constitutive instability of being."
What does Ortega characterize as the immediate and present crisis facing contemporary man, i.e, the "sickness of our age"?
What does Ortega mean when he writes that man is a secondary causa sui? Analyze Ortega's "vital program" for life in terms of the possibilities of being. What is the one limit to authentic being?
Explain Ortega's conception of an individual's life in terms of his historical dialectic of a program of life. What does he mean when he writes,"man goes about accumulating being."?
"Yo soy yo y mi circumstancia." José Ortega y Gasset, Obras completeas, 1914, (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1957), I, 319.
José Ortega y Gasset, Ensimismamiento y alteractión Buenos Aires: Espasa-Calpe, 1939. 157 pp. Also in Obras completeas, 1933-1941, (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1957), V, 319.
In all translations of which we are aware, this question is translated as "What is technology?" Literally, the question is better put as "What is technique?" although this translation is somewhat misleading also. Ortega's use of the term técnica is perhaps best viewed in the phenomenological sense of technological ideation and practice, or perhaps simply the range of human action in construction of a project of life: man's "technique of beingness" beyond biological adaptation to circumstances. Eds.
|The Reading Selection from "Meditación de la técna"|