Test Review Sheets

Test 1: Philosophy of Life

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

philosophy   sophist
ad ignorantiam   principle of charity
practical mind   metaphysics
epistemology   axiology
æsthetics   ethics
practical mind   philosophic mind
synoptic   not-Self
enlargement of self   ``arrest of life"
existentialism   undermine
the absurd   eluding

Important Essays : be able to explain in depth

  1. What is philosophy? Discuss the main divisions of philosophy and an example problem from each division.
  2. What is the Socratic Paradox and what is paradoxical about it?
  3. What is Socrates' argument that death is a good? Why doesn't Socrates believe in hell?
  4. According to Russell, what are the main goals of philosophy?
  5. How does Russell distinguish philosophy from science? What are the aims of philosophy?
  6. Characterize Tolstoy's use of faith and the characteristics he ascribes to faith. Why, according to Tolstoy, cannot philosophy and science provide a meaningful life?
  7. Explain how the meaning of ``truth'' changes throughout Tolstoy's essay. What is the meaning of life according to Tolstoy?
  8. According to Camus, how can one find the meaning of life? What does Camus mean by the absurd?

Test 2: The Philosophy of Religion

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

a priori   a posteriori
ontological   cosmological
existential import   BTWNGCBC
philosophy of religion   natural theology
efficient cause   Occam's Razor
Great Chain of Being   polar concepts
teleology   rational decision theory
prescriptive law   descriptive law
problem of evil   personalists
theodicy   nonmoral evil

Important Essays: be able to explain in detail and give possible objections.

  1. Anselm's Ontological Argument with objections
  2. Aquinas' Argument From Motion (Change) with objections
  3. Aquinas' Argument From (Efficient) Cause with objections
  4. Aquinas' Argument From Necessity with objections
  5. Aquinas' Argument From Gradation (Great Chain of Being) with objections
  6. Aquinas' Argument From Governance (Teleological Argument) with objections
  7. Paley's Watch Argument with objections
  8. Pascal's Wager with objections
  9. The Problem of Evil (See Hick notes and Dostoevsky section ``Topics Worth Investigating #1.''

Important Distinctions: be able to list differences and give examples.

  1. a priori and a posteriori statements
  2. material, efficient, formal, and final causes
  3. potentiality and actuality
  4. prescriptive and descriptive law
  5. design and chance
  6. moral evil and nonmoral evil

Test 3: Ethics and Philosophical Ethics

Important Concepts: be able to characterize and give examples.

determinism (hard)   determinism (soft)
predeterminism   fatalism
predestination   indeterminism
psychological egoism   ethical egoism
selfishness   self-interest
Ring of Gyges   other-regarding motives
eud/aemonia   arete
doctrine of mean   phronesis
master morality   slave morality
overman   will to power
principle of asceticism   hedonistic calculus
principle of sympathy & antipathy   utility principle
altruism   existence precedes essence
forlornness   existentialism

Important Essays: be able to explicate the following questions.

  1. What is the linguistic refutation of psychological egoism? How does it refute the Myth of the Ring of Gyges? Why can't ethical egoism be universalized?
  2. How does Aristotle prove that the final good for human beings is "activity of the soul in accordance with arete"? Explain the doctrine of the mean.
  3. What are the main points of Nietzsche's ethics? Explain in some detail the differences among the master-morality and the slave-morality. Explain Nietzsche's insight into the psychology of vanity. Why is vanity essential to the slave-morality?
  4. Explain the utilitarian hedonistic calculus together with its advantages and disadvantages.
  5. Distinguish between master and slave morality. What does Nietzsche mean when he says that the noble type of man is "beyond good and evil" and is a creator of values?
  6. According to Sartre, how are we "condemned to be free"? What causes "anguish" in human beings?

Lee Archie 2012-11-13