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Philosophy 203: Scientific Reasoning
Suggested Readings

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Abir-Am, P. "Essay Review: How Scientists View Their Heroes: Some Remarks on the Mechanism of Myth Construction." Journal of the History of Biology, 15 (1982), 281-315.

Axelrod, R. and W. D. Hamilton. "The Evolution of Cooperation." Science, 211 (1981), 1390-1396.

Barrow, J. D. Theories of Everything: The Quest of Ultimate Explanation . Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.

Bechtel, W. "Two Common Errors in Explaining Biological and Psychological Phenomena." Philosophy of Science, 49 (1982), 549-74.

Berger, P. L. and T. Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday, 1966.

Black, M. Models and Metaphors. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1962.

Bochen´ski, J. M. The Methods of Contemporary Thought. New York: Harper and Row, 1968.

Boyd, R., P. Gasper, and J. D. Trout, eds. The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1991.

Burian, R. M. "How the Choice of Experimental Organisms Matters: Biological Practices and Discipline Boundaries." Synthese, 92 (1992), 151-166.

Burks, A. Cause, Chance, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Callebaut, W. "Reduction Reassessed." Against Biological Determinism. Ed. S. Rose. London: Allison and Busby, 1982. 151-176.

Callebaut, W. Taking the Naturalistic Turn or How Real Philosophy of Science Is Done. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Campbell, D. R. "’Downward Causation’ in Hierarchically Organized Biological Systems." Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. Eds. F. J. Ayala and T. Dobzhansky. London: Macmillan, 1974. 179-86.

Campbell, D. R. "Can We Be Scientific in Applied Social Science?" Evaluation Studies, Vol. 9. Eds. R. F. Connor, D. G. Attman, and C. Jackson . Beverly Hills: Sage, 1984. 26-48.

Caplan, A. "Pick Your Poison: Historicism, Essentialism, and Emergentism in the Definition of Species." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences, 4 (1954), 285-86.

Churchland, P. M., and P. S. Churchland. "Could a Machine Think?" Scientific American, 262 (1990), 32-37.

Churchland, P. S. "Mind-Brain Reduction: New Light from the Philosophy of Science." Neuroscience, 7 (1982), 1041-1047.

Clement, J. "Learning via Model Construction and Criticism: Protocol Evidence on Sources of Creativity in Science." Handbook of Creativity. Eds. J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, and C. F. Reynolds. New York: Plenum Press, 1989. 341-81.

Cohen, J. "Irreproducible Results and the Breeding of Pigs (or Nondegenerate Limit Random Variables in Biology)." BioScience, 26 (1976), 394-94.

Committe on the Conduct of Science, National Academy of Sciences. "On Being a Scientist." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 89 (1989), 9053-74.

Commoner, B. "In Defense of Biology." Science, 133 (1961), 1745-48.

Cziko, G. A. "Unpredicatibility and Indeterminism in Human Behavior: Arguments and Implications for Educational Research." Educational Reasearcher, 18 (1989), 17-15.

Darden, L. "Discoveries and the Emergence of New Fields in Science." Philosophy of Science Association, (1978), 1:149-160.

Darden, L. "Diagnosing and Fixing Faults in Theories." Computational Models of Scientific Discovery and Theory Formation. Eds. J. Shrager and P. Langley. San Mateo, Calif: Morgan Kaufmann, 1990. 319-346.

Dawkins, R. "The Myth of Genetic Determinism." New Scientist, 3 (7 January 1982), 27-30.

Dawkins, R. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton, 1986.

De Mey, N. The Cognitive Paradigm. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

De Mey, M. "Scientific Discovery: Cold Fusion of Ideas?" International Studies in Philosophy of Science. 6 (1992), 23-27.

Dretske, F. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, Bradford Books, 1988.

Duhem, P. The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Trans. P. P. Wiener. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953.

Economist, The. "Philosophy Comes Down from the Clouds. (26 April 1986), 101-105.

Feyerabend, P. K. "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism." Scientific Explanation: Space and Time. Eds. H. Feigl and G. Maxwell. Minnepolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962. 28-97.

Field, H. "Theory Change and the Indeterminacy of Reference." Journal of Philosophy, 70 (1973), 462-81.

Franklin, A. The Neglect of Experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Friedman, Michael. "Explanation and Scientific Understanding." Journal of Philosophy, 71 (1974), 5-19.

Galison, P. How Experiments End. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Gardner, M. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. New York: Dover, 1957.

Gardner, M. "Mathematical Games." (The Game of Patterns) Scientific American. 249 (November 1972), 140-144.

Gerson, E. M. A Classification of Heuristics. San Francisco: Tremont Research Institute Technical Report, 1990.

Ghiselin, M. R. "Categories, Life, and Thinking." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences. 4 (1981), 269-283.

Giere, R. N. Understanding Scientific Reasoning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

Glymour, C. Theory and Evidence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Goffman, E. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1974.

Goodman, N. Fact, Fiction, and Forecast. New York, Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

Gorman, M. E., and B. Carlson. "Can Experiments Be Used to Study Science?" Soc. Epist. 3 (1989), 89-106.

Gould, S. J. "Sociobiology: The Art of Storytelling." New Scientist, (16 November 1978), 530-533.

Grene, M. "Hierarchies in Biology." American Scientist, 75 (1987), 504-9.

Grinnell, F. The Scientific Attitude. Boulder: Westview Press, 1988.

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Hanson, N. R. Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958.

Hanson, N. R. Perception and Discovery: An Introduction to Scientific Inquiry. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper, 1969.

Harman, G. "The Inference to the Best Explanation." Philosophical Review, 74 (1965), 88-95.

Hawking, S. "Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics?" Stephen Hawking’s Universe. Ed. J. Boslough. New York: Avon Books, 1989. 119-39.

Hesse, M. Models and Analogies in Science. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1966.

Hofstadter, D. R. "Mathematical Chaos and Strange Attractors." Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1986.

Holland, J. H., K. J. Holyoak, R. E. Nisbett, and P. R. Thagard. Induction: Processes of Influence, Learning and Discovery. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.

Horan, B. "Functional Explanations in Sociobiology." Biol. Phil. 4 (1989), 131-58.

Howson, C. and P. Urbach. Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1989.

Huff, D. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: W. W. Norton, 1954.

Hull, D. L "The Effects of Essentialism on Taxonomy: Two Thousand Years of Stasis." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15 (1965) 314-326 and 16 (1966), 1-18.

Hull, D. L. "The Operational Imperative: Sense and Nonsense in Operationism." Systematic Zoology, 17 (1968), 438-57.

Hull, D. L. Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Kauffman, S. The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Keene, G. B. "The Irrelevance of Classical Logic." Philosophical Quarterly, 41 (1990), 76-82.

Kitcher, P. "Explanatory Unification." Philosophy of Science, 48 (1981), 507-31.

Kneale, W., and M. Kneale. The Development of Logic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Knorr, K. D. "Tinkering Toward Success: Prelude to a Theory of Scientific Practice." Theory and Society, 8 (1979), 347-46.

Knorr, K. D. "The Fabrication of Facts: Toward a Microsociology of Scientific Knowledge." The Sociology of Knowledge. Eds. N. Stehr and V. Meja. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984.

Koyr´e, A. "Influence of Philosophical Trends on the Formulation of Scientific Theories." The Validation of Scientific Theories. Ed. P. Frank. Boston: Beacon, 1954. 177-87.

Kuhn, T. S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Kulkarni, D., and H. A. Simon. "The Processes of Scientific Discovery: The Strategy of Experimentation." Cognitive Science, 12 (1988), 139-76.

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Langley, P., H. A. Simon, G. L. Bradshaw, and J. M. Zytkow, eds. Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.

Latour, B., and S. Woolgar. Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Laudan, L. "The Pseudo-Science of Science?" Philosophy of Social Science, 11 (1981), 173-98.

Laudan, L. "Are All Theories Equally Good? A Dialogue." Relativism and Realism in Science. Ed. R. Nola. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988. 117-39.

Lenat, D. "The Ubiquity of Discovery." Artificial Intelligence, 9 (1978), 257-85.

Leontief, W. "Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts." American Economic Review, 61 (1971), 1-7.

Levi, I. Gambling With Truth. New York: Knopf, 1967.

Lewontin, R. C. "Models, Mathematics, and Metaphors." Synthese, 15 (1963), 222-44.

Lewontin, R. C. "Adaptation." Scientific American, 239, (September, 1978), 212-30.

Lighthill, J. "The Recently Recognized Failure of Predictability in Newtonian Dynamics." Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, A 407 (1986), 35-50.

Lloyd, E. A. "The Nature of Darwin’s Support for the Theory of Natural Selection." Philosophy of Science, 50 (1983), 112-29.

Longino, H. E. "Feminist Critiques of Rationality: Critiques of Science or Philosophy of Science?" Women’s Studies International Forum, 12 (1989), 261-269.

Luce, R. D. and H. Raiffa. Games and Decisions. New York: Wiley, 1957.

Lynch, M. and S. Woolgar, eds. Representation in Scientific Practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Maull, N. "Unifying Science Without Reduction." Studies in the History of Philosophy of Science, 8 (1977), 143-62.

Mayr, E. "Cause and Effect in Biology." Science, 134 (1961), 1501-6.

Mayr. E. Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Millikan, R. Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.

Mynatt, C. R., M. E. Doherty, and R. D. Tweney. "Confirmation Bias in a Simulated Research Environment. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29 (1977), 85-89.

Nagel, E. The Structure of Science. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1961.

Nagel, E. "Teleology Revisited." Journal of Philosophy, 74 (1977), 261-301.

Nersessian, N. J. "Reasoning from Imagery and Analogy in Scientific Concept Formation." Philosophy of Science Association, (1988), 1: 41-47.

Nickles, T. Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.

Nickles, T. "What is a Problem that We May Solve It?" Synthese, 47 (1981), 85-118.

Nickles. T. "Discovery Logics." Philosophica, 45 (1990), 7-32.

Oldroyd, D. "David Hull’s Evolutionary Model of Science." Biol. Phil., 4 (1990), 473-87.

Oppenheim, P. and H. Putnam. "Unity of Science as a Working Hypothesis." Concepts, Theories, and the Mind-Body Problem. Eds. H. Feigl, M. Scriven, and G. Maxwell. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958. II: 3-36.

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Pervich, Jr., A. N. "Genius, Scientific Method, and the Stability of Synthetic A Priori Principles." Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Eds. A. Donagan, A. N. Perovich, Jr., and M. V. Wedin. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1986. 327-39.

Pickering. A. "Against Putting the Phenomena First. Studies in the History of Philosophy of Science, 15 (1984), 85-117.

Pickering, A. "Making Plans: On the goals of Scientific Practice." Experimental Inquiries: Historical, Philosophical and Social Studies of Experimentation in Science. Ed. H. Le Grand. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990. 215-39.

Plotkin, H. C. "Learning the the Context of Hierarchy of Knowledge Gaining Processes." Learning, Development, and Culture: Essays in Evolutionary Epistemology. Ed. H. C. Plotkin. New York: Wiley, 1982. 117-34.

Popper, K. R. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books, 1959.

Putnam, H. "What Theories Are Not." Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Ed. E. Nagel, P. Suppes, and A. Tarski. Stanford: Stanford Univeristy Prss, 1962. 240-51.

Rescher, N. Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory of Knowledge. Oxford: Blackwell, 1977.

Quine, W. V. "Two Dogmas of Empiricism." Philosophical Review, 60 (1951), 20-43.

Root-Bernstein, R. S. Discovering. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Rosenberg, A. "Fitness." Journal of Philosophy, 80 (1983), 457-73.

Ruse, M. The Philosophy of Biology. London: Hutchinson, 1973.

Ruse, M. Molecules to Men. The Concept of Progress in Biology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Schaffner, K. F. "Approaches to Reduction." Philosophy of Science, 34 (1967), 137-47.

Scheffler, I. Science and Subjectivity. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

Schmitt, F. F. Truth: A Primer. Boulder: Westview, 1995.

Shapere, D. "The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy." Philosophy of Science, 49 (1982). 485-525.

Shapere, D. "On Deciding What to Believe and How to Talk about Nature." Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric. Eds. M. Pera and W. Shea. Canton, Mass.: Science History Publications, 1991. 89-103.

Simon, H. A. "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." Artificial Intelligence. 4 (1973), 181-201.

Simon, H. A. Models of Discovery and Other Topics in the Methods of Science. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.

Simon, H. A. "Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 6 (1992), 1-14.

Smokler, H. "Are Theories of Rationality Empirically Testable?" Synthese. 82 (1990), 297-306.

Sober, E. Simplicity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

Sober, E. "Psychologism." Journal of Theory of Social Behavior, 8:165-91.

Sober, E. Philosophy of Biology. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.

Star, L, and E. Gerson. "The Management and Dynamics of Anomalies in Scientific Work." Sociological Quarterl, 28 (1986), 147-169.

Suppe, F., ed. The Sturcture of Scientific Theories. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.

Swanson, D. "Medical Literature as a Potential Source of New Knowledge." Bulletin of Medical Library Association, 78 (1990), 29-37.

Tauber, A. I. and S. Sarkar. "The Human Genome Project: Has Blind Reductionism Gone Too Far?" Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 35 (1992), 220-35.

Thagard, P. Computational Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.

Thagard, P. "Explanatory Coherence." Bulletin of the Biological Sciences, 12 (1989), 435-67.

Tolman, E. C., and E. Brunswik. "The Organism and the Causal Texture of the Environment." Psychological Review, 42 (1935), 43-77.

Toulmin, S. E. "From Logical Analysis to Conceptual History." The Legacy of Logical Positivism. Eds. P. Achinstein and S. Barker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969. 25-53.

Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. "Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases." Science, 185 (1974), 1124-31.

Tweney, R. D. "Faraday’s Discovery of Induction: A Cognitive Approach." Faraday Rediscovered: Essays on the Life and Work of Michael Faraday, 1791-1867. Eds. D. Gooding and F. James. New York: Stockton, 1985. 189-209.

Tweney, R. D. "Serial and Parallel Processing in Scientific Discovery." Cognitive Models of Science, Vol. 15. Ed. R. N. Giere. Minneapolis: Univerity of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Tweney, R. D. "Rationality and the Psychology of Inference." Synthese, 57 (1983), 139-61.

Tweney, R. D., M. E. Doherty, and C. R. Mynatt, eds. On Scientific Thinking. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

Van Frassen, B. C. Laws and Symmetry. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.

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Vrba, E. and S. J. Gould. "The Hierarchical Expansion of Sorting and Selection: Sorting and Selection Cannot Be Equated." Paleobiology, 12 (1986), 217-28.

Walton, Douglas N. "Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?" American Philosophical Quarterly, 22 (1985), 263-74.

Wason, P. C. "Reasoning." New Horizons in Psychology. Ed. B. M. Foss. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966. 135-51.

Wason, P. C. and P. N. Johnson-Laird. The Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

Weber, R. Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986.

Wimsatt, W. C. "Teleology and the Logical Structure of Function Statements. Studies in the History of the Philosophy of Science, 3 (1972), 1-80.

Wimsatt, W. C. "False Models as Means to Truer Theories." Neutral Models in Biology. Eds. M. Nitecki and A. Hoffmann. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. 23-55.

Winckelgren, I. "How the Mind ‘Sees’ Borders When There Are None." Science, 252 (1992), 1520-21.

Woodger, J. H. Axiomatic Method in Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937.

Wright, L. Teleological Explanations: An Etiological Analysis of Goals and Functions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

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