Whenever people offer
reasons or evidence for the truth of a statement, they are advancing an argument.
In this part of our logic course, we investigate some of the ways that
logical inferences can be evaluated.
In sum, logic is a study of sorting valid or reliable arguments from
invalid or unreliable ones in accordance with specific rules.
Much of ordinary discourse is not argumentative.
From a logical point of view, the expression of strong feeling is termed emotive discourse,
not argumentative discourse. So the definition of "argument"
in this course is considerably narrower than its lexical definition
Links to Lecture Notes:
THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS
- Philosophy and Logic
The subjects of philosophy and logic are broadly characterized.
Nature of Logic
Some of the uses of logic are illustrated, and deductive arguments are
briefly distinguished from inductive arguments.
Structure of Arguments
The concept of an argument is discussed together with the related
concepts of premiss, conclusion, inference, entailment, proposition, and
The representation of the
structure of arguments by means of diagrams is explained and
Several kinds of nonargumentative discourse are characterized,
illustrated, and distinguished from argumentative discourse.
Deductive and inductive arguments are
characterized and distinguished in some detail.
Validity, and Soundness
The foundation-concepts of deductive
logic are explained—truth, validity, and soundness.