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Philosophy 203: Scientific Reasoning
Methods of Analogy ; Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

I. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions (30 points): Put a check mark next to the best answer to the following questions.

1. In the formula, "If A happens, then B happens," A is said to be a _______ condition for B.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

2. Going to college is a _______ condition for having a good job.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

3. A _______ condition is the condition in the absence of which a specific event cannot take place.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

4. Having ten dimes is a _______ condition for having a dollar.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

5. Having fuel in the tank is a _______ condition for your car to run.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

6. Being in Greenwood is a _______ condition for being in South Carolina.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

7. Having a dollar is a _______ condition for having four quarters.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

8. Experiencing some choices in your life is a _______ condition for a life of excellence.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

9. Correctly striking a match is a _______ condition for the match lighting.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

10. In the formula "If A, then B," B is said to be a _______ condition for A.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

II. Analogical Arguments (40 points): Set up the following analogical argument in standard form. For each additional premiss suggested below, state how its addition to the argument would affect the strength of the argument, and cite the relevant analogical criterion.

Jane has taken three science courses and found them very stimulating and valuable. So she signs up for another one, confidently expecting that it too will be worthwhile.

 First Premiss: Second Premiss: ____________________________ Conclusion:

1. Suppose that her previous science courses were in biology, chemistry, and physics.

2. Suppose that her previous science courses all had been taught by the same professor who is scheduled to teach the present one.

3. Suppose that her previous science courses all had been taught by Professor Jones, and the present one is taught by Professor Smith.

4. Suppose that Jane had found her three previous science courses the most exciting intellectual experiences of her life.

5. Suppose that her previous science courses all had met at 9 A.M. and that the present one is scheduled to meet at 9 A.M. also.

6. Suppose that, in addition to the three science courses previously taken, Jane also had taken and enjoyed courses in botany, organic chemistry, astronomy, and geology.

Summary List of Criteria For Analogical Arguments

1. Number of entities.
2. Number of respects.
3. Strength of conclusion relative to premisses.
4. Similarities between entities in data base and conclusion.
5. Dissimilarities between entities in data base.
6. Relevance—Causal determination