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Philosophy 203:  Scientific Reasoning
Test: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions and Mill's Methods

I. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions (30 points): Put a check mark next to the best answer to the following questions.

1. In the formula, "If A happens, then B aways happens," A is said to be a _______ condition for B.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

2. Going to college is a _______ condition for having a good job.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

3. A _______ condition is the condition in the absence of which a specific event cannot take place.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

4. Having ten dimes is a _______ condition for having a dollar.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

5. Having fuel in the tank is a _______ condition for your car to run.

 ___ 1. Contributing ___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

6. Being in Greenwood is a _______ condition for being in South Carolina.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

7. Having a dollar is a _______ condition for having four quarters.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

8. Experiencing some choices in your life is a _______ condition for a life of excellence.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

9. Correctly striking a match is a _______ condition for the match lighting.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

10. In the formula "If A, then B," B is said to be a _______ condition for A.

 ___ 1. Contributing___ 2. Necessary ___ 3. Sufficient

II. Mill's Methods (35 points). Analyze the passages below and draw any conclusions which seem appropriate.

Sue, Bob, John, Carol, Tim and Katie were discussing why only some of them were accepted into the First Circle of the prestigious Senior Embassy Society at Lander University. They were unable to fighre out why Sue, Carol, and John were the only one accepted into the First Circle of the Society. Tim was accepted into the Society but was admitten into the Second Circle, and Bob and Katie were put on the waiting list. John and Katie were in student government, but none of the other were. Sue and Carol both won Discipline Awards, John was awarded a scholarship, but Bok Tim, and Katie had not won awards. Katie was given a scholarship by Wal-Mart so that she could qualify for a middle-management job. Katie, John, and Bob worked on the student newspaper. Carol and John had a 4.0 grade average, Sue has a 3.8, Tim had a 3.3, and Katie and Bob had a 3.0.

A. Sue proposed the following chart. By the Method of Agreement is there any probable cause of being accepted into the First Circle of the Society?

 Instance Government Awards Newspaper 4.0 Ave. First Circle Sue Carol John Bob Katie Tim Conclusion:ANSWER

B. John proposed the following chart. By the Method of Agreement, is there any probable cause of being accepted into the First Circle of the Society? (Hint: Student Affairs includes government and newspaper.

 Instance Student Affairs Scholarship Disc. Award High GPA First Circle Sue Carol John Bob Katie Tim Conclusion:ANSWER

C. Katie proposed the following chart. By the Method of Difference, what is the probable cause of being accepted into the First Circle of the Society?

 Instance Student Affairs Scholarship Discipline Award 4.0 Ave. First Circle Conclusion: ANSWER

D. Sue proposed the following chart. By the Method of Concomitant Variation, what is the probable cause of the membership in the society?

 Instance Grade Point Average Type of Membership Sue Carol John Bob Katie Tim Conclusion: ANSWER

III. Mill’s Methods (35 points): Analyze the passages below and state which of Mill’s Methods is being used. Complete the accompanying chart, and draw a conclusion for each example.

A. Pasteur carried out one spectacular experiment having to do with the effect of temperature on susceptibility to infection. Puzzled by the fact that hens were refractory to anthrax, he had wondered whether this might not be explained by their body temperature, which is higher than that of animals susceptible to this disease. He selected these five hens: two hens were raised in a farm-yard, and three were raised in a pen. One hen from the farm-yard and two hens from the pen were fed only wheat grain, while the others were fed scrap grain. To test his hypothesis, he inoculated these five hens with anthrax bacilli and placed them in a cold bath to lower their body temperature. Animals so treated died the next day, showing numerous bacilli in their blood and organs.(1)

State which of Mill’s Methods applies:

Complete the following chart:

 INSTANCES Farm-yard Pen Wheat Scrap Inoculation & Cold Bath PHENOMENA Hen 1 Hen 2 Hen 3 Hen 4 Hen 5 Conclusion:

B. Pasteur tested the efficacy of preventive vaccination against anthrax, which he thought he had discovered. He first vaccinated five sheep with a mild preparation of the serum, and, when they had recovered he vaccinated them again, and also five other sheep, which had not been vaccinated before, with a strong preparation of the serum. The five sheep which had undergone the preparatory vaccination survived, while the others perished. This showed that the preparatory vaccination had acted as a protection.(2)

State which of Mill’s Methods applies:

Complete the following chart

 INSTANCES Preparatory Vaccination Second Vaccination PHENOMENON Sheep 1 Sheep 2 Sheep 3 Sheep 4 Sheep 5 Sheep 6 Sheep 7 Sheep 8 Sheep 9 Sheep 10 Conclusion: ANSWER

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